Article Types: limits
The following graph shows what types of articles are accepted for publication, and what requirement they may have.
- You must submit a digital copy of your manuscript.
- Keep the format of your manuscript simple and clear. We will set your manuscript according to our style—do not try to “design” the document.
- The manuscript, including the title page, abstract and keywords, text, references, figure captions, video legends and tables should be typewritten, double-spaced in 12-point font with 1-inch margins all around and saved as one file.
- Each figure should be saved as its own separate file. Do not embed figures within the manuscript file.
- Each video should be saved as its own separate file.
- Keep abbreviations to a minimum and be sure to explain all of them the first time they are used in the text.
- The manuscripts should be written in consistent American English.
- The authors should use Système International (SI) measurements. For clarity, nonmetric equivalents may be included in parentheses following the SI measurements.
- Use generic names for drugs. You may cite proprietary names in parentheses along with the name and location of the manufacturer.
- Credit suppliers and manufacturers of equipment, drugs, and other brand-name material mentioned in the manuscript within parentheses, giving the company name and primary location
- This journal adheres to a single-blinded peer-review policy. The title page should be included in the main document.
- The title page should list the article title and the corresponding author’s full name, degree, title, department, affiliation, mailing address and e-mail address. It should also list the full name, department, and affiliation of every co-author.
Abstract and Keywords, Text, Number of Figures and Tables, Number of References
See the section Article Types for limits.
The abstract should briefly outline the content of the article and any conclusions it may reach. The keywords should be words a reader would be likely to use in searching for the content of the article.
Original Articles, Systematic Reviews, Meta-analyses, Short Review, Statements and Position Papers: the abstracts should be a maximum of 300 words and structured in the following format:
Background and Purpose: One or two sentences that simply state purpose and background information.
Methods: Provide details about the methods of the study, including data analysis.
Results: Present most important findings of the study. Please provide numbers (means with standard deviations or medians with ranges) to support your findings, and results of significance tests, e.g. p-values.
Conclusions: One or two sentences that state only what your study identified and actually demonstrated.
Please do not include comments or information not supported by the data of your study. Level of evidence (for human studies) or clinical relevance (basic science in-vitro or in-vivo study: why is this study important from a clinical standpoint?) should be noted.
For the number of figures/tables and references, see the manuscript format article types table.
Case Report: the abstract should be an unstructured summary (maximum length, 200 words).
Key Words: Please provide at least 4 key words for indexing.
- The text should be structured in the standard IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) format.
- Papers including human or animal subjects must include a statement of approval by appropriate agencies in the text.
- Use generic names of drugs or devices. If a particular brand was used in a study, insert the brand name along with the name and location of the manufacturer in parentheses after the generic name when the drug or device is first mentioned in the text.
- Quantities and units should be expressed in accordance with the recommendations of the International System of Units (SI).
- When abbreviations are used, give the full term followed by the abbreviation in parentheses the first time it is mentioned in the text.
- Please clearly distinguish the hierarchy of headings within the manuscript by using capital letters, underline and bold style as necessary.
- Do not insert page or section breaks except where noted in the Author Instructions.
- Use hard returns (the Enter key) only at the end of a paragraph, not at the end of a line. Allow lines of text to break automatically in your word-processing software. Do not justify your text.
- Use only one space, not two, after periods.
- Create tables using the Table function in Microsoft Word.
The source of any financial support received and recognition of personal assistance for the work being published should be indicated at the end of the article, just before the Reference section, under the heading Acknowledgments.
Conflict of Interest (see “policy statements”)
The declaration must be included at the end of the manuscript, following any acknowledgments and prior to the references, under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest Statement’. If no declaration is made, the following will be printed under this heading in your article: ‘None Declared’.
Alternatively, you may wish to state that ‘The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest’.
References should be the most recent and pertinent literature available. It is essential that they are complete and thoroughly checked. If the reference information is incomplete, good online sites to search for full details are the National Library of Medicine: www.nlm.nih.gov; Books in Print: www.booksinprint.com; PubMed: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/; or individual publisher Web sites.
- References must be listed in AMA style, using Index Medicus journal title abbreviations.
- References follow the article text. Insert a page break between the end of text and the start of references.
- References must be cited sequentially (NOT alphabetically) in the text using superscript numbers.
- By way of exception to AMA style, do not italicize book titles or journal title abbreviations and do not put a period at the end of a reference.
- List all author names, up to and including six names. For more than six authors, list the first three followed by et al.
- References should be styled per the following examples:
- Citing a journal article: Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Burns JC, et al. The treatment of Kawasaki syndrome with intravenous gamma-globulin. N Engl J Med 1986;315:341–347
- Citing a chapter in a book: Toma H. Takayasu’s arteritis. In: Novick A, Scoble J, Hamilton G, eds. Renal Vascular Disease. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1995:47–62
- Citing a book: Stryer L. Biochemistry. 2nd ed. San Francisco: WH Freeman; 1981:559–596
- Citing a thesis: Stern I. Hemorrhagic Complications of Anticoagulant Therapy [Ph.D. dissertation]. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University; 1994
- Citing a government publication: Food and Drug Administration. Jin Bu Huan Herbal Tablets. Rockville, MD: National Press Office; April 15, 1994. Talk Paper T94-22
- Citing an online article: Rosenthal S, Chen R, Hadler S. The safety of acelluler pertussis vaccine vs whole-cell pertussis vaccine [abstract]. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med [serial online]. 1996;150:457–460. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/journals/archive/ajdc/vol_150/no_5/abstract/htm. Accessed November 10, 1996
- Citing a symposium article: Eisenberg J. Market forces and physician workforce reform: why they may not work. Paper presented at: Annual Meeting of the Association of American Medical Colleges; October 28, 1995; Washington, DC
- Figures include photographs or radiographs, drawings, graphs, bar charts, flow charts, and pathways, but NOT lists or tables.
- Figures must be cited sequentially in the text. Number all figures (and corresponding figure captions) sequentially in the order they are cited in the text.
- Figure captions should be written after the reference list. Insert a page break between the end of references and the start of figure captions.
- Figure captions should include a description of the figure and/or each lettered part (A, B, etc.) and of any portions of the figure highlighted by arrows, arrowheads, asterisks, etc.
- For a figure borrowed or adapted from another publication (used with permission), add a credit line in parentheses at the end of each figure legend. This credit line should be a complete bibliographic listing of the source publication (as a reference), or other credit line as supplied by the copyright holder. For example (Reprinted with permission from Calfee DR, Wispelwey B. Brain abscess. Semin Neurol 2000;20:357.)
- Data given in tables should be commented on but not repeated in the text. Be sure that lists or columns of related data are composed in a word-processing program like the rest of the text.
- Do not intersperse tables in the text. Tables should appear after the figure captions. Insert a page break between the end of the figure captions and the start of the tables.
- Tables must be double-spaced and numbered in the same sequence they are cited in the text. A short descriptive title should be provided for each table.
- If a table contains artwork, supply the artwork separately as a digital file.
- For tables borrowed or adapted from another publication (used with permission), add a credit line as the first footnote beneath each table. This credit line should be a complete bibliographical listing of the source publication (as a reference), or other credit line as supplied by the copyright holder. For example, “Reprinted with permission from Calfee DR, Wispelwey B. Brain abscess. Semin Neurol 2000;20:357.” (“Data from . . .” or “Adapted from . . .” may also be used, as appropriate.)
- Other footnotes for tables should be indicated in the table using superscript letters in alphabetical order.
- Any abbreviations used in the table should be explained at the end of the table in a footnote.
- Videos will not be included in the main document but must be added as notes (a link to the video will be inserted);
- The following formats are acceptable: *.avi, *.mov and *.mp4;
- The length should not exceed 4 minutes, the total of the 4 videos should not be more than 1gb and a legend of no more than 40 words per video or per sequence is required;
- If including a voice over, it must be in clear English. Be precise, informative, and clear in your speech. Re-record audio in post-production for sound quality.
DIGITAL ARTWORK PREPARATION
- It is best to use Adobe Photoshop to create and save images, and Adobe Illustrator for line art and labels.
- Do not submit art created in Microsoft Excel, Word, or PowerPoint. These files cannot be used by the typesetter.
- Save each figure in a separate file.
- Do not compress files.
- All black-and-white and color artwork should be at a resolution of 300 dpi (dots per inch) in TIFF format. Line art should be 1,200 dpi in EPS or TIFF format. Contact the Production Editor at EGO if you are unsure of the final size.
- It is preferable for figures to be cropped to their final size (approximately 3½ inches for a single column and up to 7 inches for a double column), or larger, and in the correct orientation. If art is submitted smaller and then has to be enlarged, its resolution (dpi) and clarity will decrease.
Note: Lower resolutions (less than 300 dpi) and JPEG format (.jpg extension) for grayscale and color artwork are strongly discouraged due to the poor quality they yield in printing, which requires 300 dpi resolution for sharp, clear, detailed images. JPEG format, by definition, is a lower resolution (compressed) format designed for quick upload on computer screens.
- Black-and-white artwork can be halftone (or grayscale) photographs, radiographs, drawings, line art, graphs, and flowcharts. EGO will only accept digital artwork.
- If possible, do not send color art for conversion to black-and-white. Do the conversion yourself so that you can check the results and confirm in advance that no critical details are lost or obscured by the change to black-and-white.
- For best results, line art should be black on a white background. Lines and type should be clean and evenly dark. Avoid screens or cross-hatching, as they can darken or be uneven in printing and lead to unacceptable printing quality.
- All color artwork should be saved in CMYK, not RGB.
- Arrows, asterisks, and arrowheads (or other markers) should be white in dark or black areas and black in light or white areas, and large in size. If not, these highlighting marks may become difficult to see when figures are reduced in size during the typesetting process.
- Use 1-point (or thicker) rules and leader lines.
- Capitalize the first word of each label and all proper nouns. Consider using all capitals if you need a higher level of labels.
- Where there are alternate terms or spellings for a named structure, use the most common one and make sure it is consistent with what is used in the text.
- Avoid using multiple fonts and font sizes for the labels; use only one or two sizes of a serif font.
Article Processing Charge (APC)
(Valid from 2021, until then the publication will be free of charge)
During the submission process, you will be prompted to confirm that you accept to pay the APC if your manuscript should be chosen for publication. Please refer to the first page of this document for the exact pricing. You will be billed based on the year in which you submitted your manuscript, but you will not receive the bill until and unless your manuscript has been accepted for publication.
- Consult the checklist to ensure that you are ready to submit your manuscript
- Manuscripts must be submitted electronically here
- Always review your manuscript before submitting it. You may stop a submission at any phase and save it to submit later. After submission, you will receive a confirmation email. You can also check the status of your manuscript by logging in to the submission system. The Editor in Chief will inform you via email once a decision has been made.
- Should the editors decide that your article requires a revision, you will need to make the changes via a word-processing program and resubmit it electronically.
- Log In to the submission system and find your article, which will be marked for revision.
- The best way to make revisions to your manuscript is by enabling the Track Changes mode in Microsoft Word, which will automatically highlight and mark up revised text. Please submit both a marked up copy and a clean copy of your revised manuscript to the submission system.
- Your original files will still be available after you upload your revised manuscript, so you should delete any redundant files before completing the submission.
- You will also be provided space in which to respond to the reviewers’ and editors’ comments. Please be as specific as possible in your response.
Page proofs will be sent to you via email. The proofs will be in a PDF file format, which should be opened using Acrobat Reader software. You will receive further instructions with your proofs. Take this opportunity to check the typeset text for typographic and related errors. Elective alterations are difficult to accommodate owing to the associated time and expense of introducing them. Therefore, please be sure that when you submit your manuscript, it is accurate, complete, and final.
Statement on Liability
The legislation on product liability makes increased demands on the duty of care to be exercised by authors of scientific research and medical publications. This applies in particular to papers and publications containing therapeutic directions or instructions and doses or dosage schedules. We therefore request you to examine with particular care, also in your own interest, the factual correctness of the contents of your manuscript once it has been copyedited and returned to you in the form of galley proofs. The responsibility for the correctness of data and statements made in the manuscript rests entirely with the author.
Definition of Authorship
Authorship credit should be based on criteria established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Each author should have made the following contributions towards the completion of the manuscript:
- Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content
- Final approval of the version to be published
Submitted manuscripts must represent original research not previously published nor being considered for publication elsewhere. The editors combat plagiarism, double publication, and scientific misconduct.
Your manuscript may be subject to an investigation and retraction if plagiarism is suspected.
If you plan to reproduce text, tables, or figures from a published source, you must first obtain written permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). This is required even if the material is from your own published work. For material never before published and given to you by another person, you must obtain permission from that person. Serious delays to publication can be incurred if permissions are not obtained.
As the author, it is your responsibility to obtain all permissions, pay any permission fees, furnish copies of permissions to EGO with your manuscript, and include a credit line at the end of the figure caption, beneath the table, or in a text footnote.
Upon publication of an article, all rights are held by the publishers, including the rights to reproduce all or part of any publication. The reproduction of articles or illustrations without prior consent from the publisher is prohibited.
Statement of Ethics
This journal adheres to the ethical standards described by the Committee on Publication Ethics and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Authors are expected to adhere to these standards.
For all manuscripts reporting data from studies involving human or animal participants, formal review and approval, or formal review and waiver (exemption), by an appropriate institutional review board (IRB) or ethics committee is required, as well as any necessary HIPAA consent, and 12 should be described in the Methods section with the full name of the reviewing entity. All clinical trials must be registered in a public trials registry. Denote the registry and registry number.
Patient Permission Policy
You must obtain a signed patient permission form for every patient whose recognizable photograph or video will be used. If you do not supply this, the identity of the patient must be obscured before the image is published; this could interfere with the instructive value of the photograph or video.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The importance of transparency and objectivity in scientific research and the peer review process.
The conflict of interest exists when an investigator, author, editor, or reviewer has a financial/personal interest or belief that could affect his/her objectivity, or inappropriately influence his/her actions.
All manuscripts for original articles, systematic reviews, meta-analysis, short reviews, case reports, editorials, statements and position papers that are submitted to EGO as well as the articles that are published in it, must be accompanied by a conflict of interest disclosure statement or a declaration by the authors that they do not have any conflicts of interest to declare.
EGO may use disclosures as a basis for editorial decisions and may publish them if they are believed to be important to readers in judging the manuscript. Likewise, it may decide not to publish on the basis of the declared conflict.
All the “potential conflicts of interests” that are to be privately disclosed to the editors of EGO when submitting a manuscript, include all financial and non-financial interests and relationships, direct employment with a private sector entity and service on private sector and non-profit Boards and advisory panels, whether paid or unpaid.
Authors should also disclose any conflict of interest that may have influenced either the conduct or the presentation of the research to the editors, including but not limited to close relationships with those who might be helped or hurt by the publication, academic interests and rivalries, and any personal, religious or political convictions relevant to the topic at hand.
In the article, the authors must include a statement that discloses all relevant conflicts of interest and affiliations. The relevance of financial conflicts of interest with private firms is defined as a relationship of any value with a firm that has a stake in the subject of the manuscript or its competitors. Relevance for patents is defined as any invention or pending invention connected in any way to the subject. As relevance is often in the eye of the beholder, one must err on the side of full disclosure when drafting the disclosure statement. Editors will check a draft against the private financial disclosure statement and initiate discussions toward possible adjustments, if necessary.
What to report: Any financial relationship from the past three years (dating from the month of submission) of any size, should be disclosed. These potential conflicts of interest include:
- Direct employment
- Grants and research funding (but not grants to your institution or others within your institution, on which you have not worked). These include substantial grants from trade associations and non-profit (50% or more) or funded by private sector firms
- Travel grants, speaking fees and other honoraria
- Paid expert testimony for one side in adversarial proceeding (this does not include testimony as a factual witness in a civil or criminal case)
- Patents granted and pending applications, irrespective of whether they are generating royalties or not
- Stock ownership and investment in the related ‘sector’ funds or stock options, including those of immediate family members, but excluding diversified mutual funds and investment trusts Membership of private sector, scientific or other advisory Boards, whether paid or unpaid
In addition, any current negotiations regarding future employment or current job offers, either full-or part-time, must be disclosed.
In disclosing these financial arrangements to the editors, the authors can include dollar amounts, albeit they will not be printed in the journal. Editors may choose to exclude this information from the publication, but in no case should an editor or author consider an arrangement irrelevant based on its size alone.
Non-Financial Conflicts of Interest:
The authors must consider disclosing these views and the editors may choose to print any affiliations or expressions from these views that may be relevant. These may be personal, political or intellectual, and may include any expression of strongly held views relevant to the subject of submission. Such disclosures may be original or they may be references to opinions previously expressed in books or monographs, opposite editorials (op-eds) or public comments, or to some prior sworn testimony or lobbying of legislators or legislative bodies. Disclosable non-financial conflicts of interest will also include membership or affiliation to nongovernmental organizations that have an interest in the submission.
How do I Make a Declaration?
The declaration must be included at the end of your manuscript, following any acknowledgments and prior to the references, under the heading ‘Conflict of Interest Statement’. If no declaration is made, the following will be printed under this heading in your article: ‘None Declared’.
Alternatively, you may wish to state that ‘The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interest.